Papa Batali's Greatest Creation

I have a new favorite salami and I have Armandino Batali to thank for it. But Armandino, Mario's Dad, couldn't leave well enough alone. The result: a teeny storefront in Seattle called Salumi Artisan Cured Meats (what else?) serving Italian cold cuts not only never previously seen in America, but original creations the likes of which even Italians would be in awe of.

Traditional sopressata, guanciale (pork jowls), pancetta, finocchiona (fennel) salami, and oregano salami stand side by side with a somewhat bizarre, but chocolaty mole salami, and my new favorite: agrumi. Agrumi is made with orange zest, hot red pepper flakes, and cardamom. Armandino's newest hit is called "Da Vino," a red wine and cinnamon dried sausage that will get me through this unbearable winter. That is, until spring when Armandino's housemade culatello and lamb prosciutto will be available again.

Now, you can find these porky products not only at Armandino's diminutive store in Seattle, but also in New York City at Eataly, where you might also see that other what's-his-name Batali.

The Papa Saverio’s Story

The Papa Saverio’s story is filled with family, tradition and the perfect recipes for bringing the both of them together. Papa was born in Naples, Italy and came to America in the early 1900s, bringing with him his most treasured possessions and his passion for food.

Papa’s children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren grew up with memories of him chopping fresh tomatoes, onions and garlic in the kitchen. A home filled with laughter and the heavenly aroma of Papa’s latest creation was the norm. His recipes became a treasured secret, passed on from generation to generation. Friends and neighbors continued to request Papa’s food and in 1997, the first Papa Saverio’s restaurant opened in Lake in the Hills, Illinois.

The local community immediately embraced the family-owned brand and over time, more Papa Saverio’s locations were opened. Today, there are 15 restaurants in the greater Chicago area. What began as one man’s humble joy of cooking for his loved ones turned into a dining experience enjoyed by countless individuals. Without a doubt, Papa would be proud and he would most definitely invite you to pull up a chair and enjoy!


The BEST lasagna in the northwest suburbs…..order with meat sauce and meatballs.

Great pizza, tastes fresh, great sauce and crusts, staff was friendly, lots of good topping choices.

Is Lidia's Mastering the Art of Italian Cuisine the Only Italian Cookbook You Need?

I started reviewing cookbooks in 2008. Since then, I have encountered seemingly infinite Italian cookbooks: Enough Italian cookbooks that if they were all put together in one room, it would be considered a health hazard. Enough Italian cookbooks that I could almost recite an ur-Italian cookbook from memory if I had to. Enough Italian cookbooks that stacked end-to-end, they might just reach my 33rd floor office.

The Ten Cookbooks Every Cook Should Own

But here comes Lidia Bastianich with Lidia's Mastering the Art of Italian Cuisine. The fact that the title sounds awfully similar to another cookbook behemoth—Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking—is no mistake. Bastianich means business: the subtitle to the book is Everything You Need to Know to Be a Great Italian Cook. She wants this to be the only Italian cookbook you own. (Or at least definitely one of three Italian cookbooks you own.)

So she went old school. No photos. Minimal illustrations. Many, many, many recipes: over 400, according to the publisher. "100-125" have appeared elsewhere. I can forgive that. How many times can you write a new recipe for Bolognese? (Don't answer that.)

More important than the recipes, though, is the 88 page guide to Italian ingredients at the front of the book. Now, I'm going to say something that you think you already understand. I thought I understood it, too. But I didn't, until I read this book.

Italian dishes? Are all about seasonal ingredients. The seasonal ingredients. of Italy.

What this means: Italian food, like what they actually make in Italy, is not something you can precisely recreate anywhere else. Fresh cardoons—a plant that looks like celery but tastes like artichokes—are tricky to find in the US outside of California, but they're all over Italian cuisine. San Marzano tomatoes are only truly considered San Marzanos if they are grown in the Valle del Sarno outside Naples (thank goodness they can them and ship them everywhere). Fresh cheeses like ricotta and mascarpone don't ship well. If you can get your hands on specialty Italian ingredients here in the States—especially fresh ones—chances are they're going be slightly different than what youɽ get in Italy.

But that's okay. You can't exactly recreate the pastas you had in your junior year abroad in Rome. So what? The cuisine's overarching spirit is achievable pretty much anywhere. Italian food should always incorporate the freshest produce, which varies from Rome to California to Texas to New York to Melbourne to Mumbai to wherever. Which means individual Italian dishes look different in different areas of the world, despite all of them being born of Italian cuisine.

And which makes the 88-page ingredients guide maybe the most valuable part of this book. You have to learn the traditions before you can begin to improvise.

With a proper Italian understanding of ingredients and the roles they play in dishes, the recipes in Mastering become techniques. A linguine with chard, ricotta and walnuts I made could have worked just as well with kale in the fall and asparagus in the spring. The shaved fennel salad studded with smoked mozzarella and salami would be fantastic with other antipasti staples, like olives or prosciutto. The fantastic meat-stuffed eggplant would work equally well with peppers. The list goes on.

If you're looking for a comprehensive encyclopedia of classic Italian dishes, however, this isn't your book. It's called Lidia's Mastering the Art of Italian Cuisine for a reason. Many of the recipes are her own creation, including (according to the publisher) a bread and prune gnocchi and a beet ravioli with poppy seed sauce.

Customer reviews

Top reviews from the United States

There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later.

I ordered this book based on one recipe that he did on morning television. I liked his style and personality and when I tried the recipe, it was wonderful! I read other reviews and they were all good. Some made mention about the stories he wrote to accompany each recipe. They were right, the stories were very funny and informative.

I have picked quite a few recipes that I will try. The original one I tried was red wine braised brisket. I am going to cook it for my Mom on Mother's Day. If you like Italian food, you should add this to your cookbook collection!

`It's About Time', the first book by award winning Boston restaurateur, Michael Schlow cuts across all my criteria for evaluating a restaurant chef's book in that it both violates some of my most important criteria while strongly fulfilling others. The author's credentials are good enough so that it brings into question some of those very criteria, and leads me to high recommendation for the book in spite of myself.

For starters, the book does not follow through on its major promise as signaled by the title. The title and introduction suggest that this book will give us a totally new point of view on time and cooking, in somewhat the same way Alton Brown looked at all cooking methods as different ways of applying heat. Time is an only casually applied theme in that some of the chapters focus on dishes, which can be done either very quickly (within the familiar 30 minutes), or which take a very long time. In the absence of strongly positive qualities in other areas, failing to follow through on your major stated premise is usually a sure demotion from five to four stars.

As luck would have it, recently crowned best chef in the country (James Beard Awards, 2005) saves the day in his foreword when he points out the truly distinctive and unusual aspect of Schlow's cooking. Unlike restaurants around the world, including Mario's hot spots, Schlow uses a low heat oven, with 300 degrees Fahrenheit as his norm rather than the more usual home temperature of 350 degrees or the blistering inferno found in restaurant kitchens. I have often questioned Mario's love of blisteringly hot saute pans for many dishes especially for inexperienced cooks who can have the saute ingredients go from hot to charcoal in a heartbeat if you are not paying close attention to what you are doing. And, if you are inexperienced, you don't always know to what to pay attention! Thus, I am enthusiastic to see another well-credentialed advocate (along with Tom Colicchio) of moderate temperatures for various cooking techniques. Schlow does often use high saute temperatures and I agree that there are many cases where this is important, but with the promise of high success comes high risk. Happily, Schlow comes to the rescue near the end of the book when he says that you will simply not get dishes right the first time all the time. Something may always go wrong. But keep at it and learn from your mistakes.

Another area where Schlow violated one of my key criteria is in his very long cooking stock recipes. On the one hand, I have seen good books on home cooking techniques create very good stocks with about three (3) hours of cooking. I have also seen restaurant chefs call for ten to twelve hours of stock cooking. For home cooking, I definitely prefer the shorter times, but in this case, I will bow to chef Schlow's opinion, with reservations.

The thing that sells me on Schlow's recipes in general is the fact that they are exceptionally well written. I have found more good new cooking tips in this book than I have in the last several dozen I have reviewed. And this is without a single mistake that I can find. As I became more and more impressed at the care and level of detail applied to the cooking methods, without resorting to very many exotic ingredients, I discovered Schlow's inspiration to be the collaboration of Patricia Wells and Joel Robuchon on the book `Simply French', which I reviewed and found to be a true paradigm of a good restaurant cookbook. And, my reasons were the same as those cited by Schlow, in that Robuchon's attention to detail is better than any I have seen, with the possible exception of Thomas Keller.

The single best recommendation for this book for novice cooks is the same thing I like about Jamie Oliver's books. Both authors have a truly infectious enthusiasm for cooking and both are able to make that enthusiasm jump off the printed page and into your psyche. And, Schlow and his team have been able to do this without some of Oliver's misdirected typographical pyrotechnics on his printed pages. In fact, Schlow has had his photography done by Shimon & Tammar, the leading culinary photographic team in the business.

The very high quality of the recipe writing and the infectious enthusiasm are more than enough to overcome any objections to this book and its somewhat high price per recipe. This is really a super book for beginners. I would suggest this volume immediately after reading a good introductory text such as the Alton Brown opus cited above `I'm Just Here for the Food' or Anne Willan's `The Good Cook'.

If the recipes in this book were not of such a high quality or if I found some factual errors in this book, the organization of the chapters would annoy me, as they are organized by occasion rather than by major ingredient or course. In fact, this organization is the one aspect of the book which is consistent with the title and theme of time, in that the first chapter (`Time to Eat and Now') is about fast cooking and the last chapter is about spending the day in the kitchen (`Time to Celebrate'). But, if you need something to spark your creative cooking juices, this book will provide the inspiration.

The book also provides one last thing I expect in a professional chef's writing, which is some insight into professional cooking practice or the inspiration that brought the author to cooking. The book provides a little of both, with a glimpse at the kind of networking between leading chefs which makes the culinary world go around.

On a par with Colicchio and Stitt and Kinkead and O'Connell. Almost as good as Keller and Robuchon.

How to Be More Creative Using THC and CBD

With a surge of interest in cannabis and hemp, cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have made their way into the news and blogosphere, with a mixture of anecdotal and scientific research touting their benefits. Chances are you’ve heard about some of these benefits, but current research is uncovering a host of these cannabinoids’ powerful effects on the human body. One area of study is in the relationship between cannabis and creativity. While it’s no secret that some of the most famous artists and creative mavericks in the last century have been outspoken consumers of cannabis, it’s possible — even useful — to use the plant’s properties in everyday life.


Studies suggest that THC increases some types of impulsiveness, the primary driving force behind creativity. Don’t be alarmed — while impulsive behavior sounds negative, we’re not talking about the extreme and reckless forms of impulsivity. Most people demonstrate impulsivity every day — any kind of risk-taking or spontaneity stems from it. In fact, neuroscientists have actually shown that creativity has an incredibly close relationship with impulsiveness. Basically, more impulsive means more creative.

Researchers also believe that CBD and THC work together to enhance each other’s benefits, a synergy known as the entourage effect. Thus, if you are wondering how to be more creative, using cannabinoid-infused products might just help you reach your goals.


The impacts of THC and CBD don’t stop at their direct changes in creative impulse. In fact, the indirect benefits of their use could potentially be more beneficial to your overall creative ability. It is incredibly difficult to think innovatively when you are experiencing discomfort or distress. Cannabis, which can provide relief from anxiousness and stress,
offers therapeutic benefits can indirectly support your ability to think creatively.

One example of a fantastic, well-rounded way you can use cannabinoid products to your greatest advantage is through the creation of a home spa. We all know it as common sense, but research also suggests that your perception of your well-being is integral to your ability to be innovative. By using a THC and CBD Releaf soak, combined with a bottle of your favorite wine (or hot tea, if you’re avoiding alcohol) and a smattering of lightly-scented candles, you can relax your body and your mind to better open yourself to creative expression.


At the root of the word “creativity” is, simply, the ability to create. Creativity can be helpful — or even essential — in a number of professions. Though artists, songwriters and other “typical” creative means of employment rely more heavily on producing original and imaginative work, most jobs require some level of creativity or out-of-the-box thinking to solve problems.


Athletes utilize cannabinoids for many different therapeutic reasons, particularly to aid in recovery. Injured athletes, as well as anyone with injuries or chronic pains, use these products as a means to reduce pain without the use of harmful medications.

You might not immediately think of creativity as it relates to athletic performance, but research suggests that enhancing an athlete’s psychological skills can also improve their performance. In this case, creativity can help athletes to develop and integrate new techniques into their game. This means that cannabinoid products can potentially help relieve discomfort, but also potentially improve performance as well through creativity.


To achieve the most creative results, you do not necessarily need to consume a full dose of THC. In fact, for some people the very opposite can be true — microdosing THC can yield significant benefits as well. In one study, researchers found that patients who took lower doses of THC and CBD reported the highest reduction in pain. The same could potentially be true for boosting creativity or increasing relaxation without the “high” sometimes associated with cannabinoid products. Find to help you get started.


Athletes aren’t the only ones who can benefit from creatively integrating new ideas and premises. You can use a boost in creative expression in just about any profession. Whether you’re an office manager designing the layout of your new office floor plan, a startup founder looking to scale your business, a full-time working mom juggling way too many tasks — the ability to be creative on the spot can help you be more efficient and find better solutions for your projects.


How can you hope to innovate, inspire and think creatively when you are plagued by worry, anxiousness or discomfort? The use of CBD and THC infused products can provide you with a holistic approach to your health and wellbeing. By working simultaneously to reduce stressors while providing an increase in impulsivity, you have opened the door to creativity.

Papa Batali's Greatest Creation - Recipes



WITH A FATHER’S HEART: that is how Joseph loved Jesus, whom all four Gospels refer to as “the son of Joseph”.[1]

Matthew and Luke, the two Evangelists who speak most of Joseph, tell us very little, yet enough for us to appreciate what sort of father he was, and the mission entrusted to him by God’s providence.

We know that Joseph was a lowly carpenter (cf. Mt 13:55), betrothed to Mary (cf. Mt 1:18 Lk 1:27). He was a “just man” (Mt 1:19), ever ready to carry out God’s will as revealed to him in the Law (cf. Lk 2:22.27.39) and through four dreams (cf. Mt 1:20 2:13.19.22). After a long and tiring journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem, he beheld the birth of the Messiah in a stable, since “there was no place for them” elsewhere (cf. Lk 2:7). He witnessed the adoration of the shepherds (cf. Lk 2:8-20) and the Magi (cf. Mt 2:1-12), who represented respectively the people of Israel and the pagan peoples.

Joseph had the courage to become the legal father of Jesus, to whom he gave the name revealed by the angel: “You shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins” (Mt 1:21). As we know, for ancient peoples, to give a name to a person or to a thing, as Adam did in the account in the Book of Genesis (cf. 2:19-20), was to establish a relationship.

In the Temple, forty days after Jesus’ birth, Joseph and Mary offered their child to the Lord and listened with amazement to Simeon’s prophecy concerning Jesus and his Mother (cf. Lk 2:22-35). To protect Jesus from Herod, Joseph dwelt as a foreigner in Egypt (cf. Mt 2:13-18). After returning to his own country, he led a hidden life in the tiny and obscure village of Nazareth in Galilee, far from Bethlehem, his ancestral town, and from Jerusalem and the Temple. Of Nazareth it was said, “No prophet is to rise” (cf. Jn 7:52) and indeed, “Can anything good come out of Nazareth?” (cf. Jn 1:46). When, during a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Joseph and Mary lost track of the twelve-year-old Jesus, they anxiously sought him out and they found him in the Temple, in discussion with the doctors of the Law (cf. Lk 2:41-50).

After Mary, the Mother of God, no saint is mentioned more frequently in the papal magisterium than Joseph, her spouse. My Predecessors reflected on the message contained in the limited information handed down by the Gospels in order to appreciate more fully his central role in the history of salvation. Blessed Pius IX declared him “Patron of the Catholic Church”,[2] Venerable Pius XII proposed him as “Patron of Workers”[3] and Saint John Paul II as “Guardian of the Redeemer”.[4] Saint Joseph is universally invoked as the “patron of a happy death”.[5]

Now, one hundred and fifty years after his proclamation as Patron of the Catholic Church by Blessed Pius IX (8 December 1870), I would like to share some personal reflections on this extraordinary figure, so close to our own human experience. For, as Jesus says, “out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks” (Mt 12:34). My desire to do so increased during these months of pandemic, when we experienced, amid the crisis, how “our lives are woven together and sustained by ordinary people, people often overlooked. People who do not appear in newspaper and magazine headlines, or on the latest television show, yet in these very days are surely shaping the decisive events of our history. Doctors, nurses, storekeepers and supermarket workers, cleaning personnel, caregivers, transport workers, men and women working to provide essential services and public safety, volunteers, priests, men and women religious, and so very many others. They understood that no one is saved alone… How many people daily exercise patience and offer hope, taking care to spread not panic, but shared responsibility. How many fathers, mothers, grandparents and teachers are showing our children, in small everyday ways, how to accept and deal with a crisis by adjusting their routines, looking ahead and encouraging the practice of prayer. How many are praying, making sacrifices and interceding for the good of all”.[6] Each of us can discover in Joseph – the man who goes unnoticed, a daily, discreet and hidden presence – an intercessor, a support and a guide in times of trouble. Saint Joseph reminds us that those who appear hidden or in the shadows can play an incomparable role in the history of salvation. A word of recognition and of gratitude is due to them all.

The greatness of Saint Joseph is that he was the spouse of Mary and the father of Jesus. In this way, he placed himself, in the words of Saint John Chrysostom, “at the service of the entire plan of salvation”.[7]

Saint Paul VI pointed out that Joseph concretely expressed his fatherhood “by making his life a sacrificial service to the mystery of the incarnation and its redemptive purpose. He employed his legal authority over the Holy Family to devote himself completely to them in his life and work. He turned his human vocation to domestic love into a superhuman oblation of himself, his heart and all his abilities, a love placed at the service of the Messiah who was growing to maturity in his home”.[8]

Thanks to his role in salvation history, Saint Joseph has always been venerated as a father by the Christian people. This is shown by the countless churches dedicated to him worldwide, the numerous religious Institutes, Confraternities and ecclesial groups inspired by his spirituality and bearing his name, and the many traditional expressions of piety in his honour. Innumerable holy men and women were passionately devoted to him. Among them was Teresa of Avila, who chose him as her advocate and intercessor, had frequent recourse to him and received whatever graces she asked of him. Encouraged by her own experience, Teresa persuaded others to cultivate devotion to Joseph.[9]

Every prayer book contains prayers to Saint Joseph. Special prayers are offered to him each Wednesday and especially during the month of March, which is traditionally dedicated to him.[10]

Popular trust in Saint Joseph is seen in the expression “Go to Joseph”, which evokes the famine in Egypt, when the Egyptians begged Pharaoh for bread. He in turn replied: “Go to Joseph what he says to you, do” (Gen 41:55). Pharaoh was referring to Joseph the son of Jacob, who was sold into slavery because of the jealousy of his brothers (cf. Gen 37:11-28) and who – according to the biblical account – subsequently became viceroy of Egypt (cf. Gen 41:41-44).

As a descendant of David (cf. Mt 1:16-20), from whose stock Jesus was to spring according to the promise made to David by the prophet Nathan (cf. 2 Sam 7), and as the spouse of Mary of Nazareth, Saint Joseph stands at the crossroads between the Old and New Testaments.

2. A tender and loving father

Joseph saw Jesus grow daily “in wisdom and in years and in divine and human favour” (Lk 2:52). As the Lord had done with Israel, so Joseph did with Jesus: he taught him to walk, taking him by the hand he was for him like a father who raises an infant to his cheeks, bending down to him and feeding him (cf. Hos 11:3-4).

In Joseph, Jesus saw the tender love of God: “As a father has compassion for his children, so the Lord has compassion for those who fear him” (Ps 103:13).

In the synagogue, during the praying of the Psalms, Joseph would surely have heard again and again that the God of Israel is a God of tender love,[11] who is good to all, whose “compassion is over all that he has made” (Ps 145:9).

The history of salvation is worked out “in hope against hope” (Rom 4:18), through our weaknesses. All too often, we think that God works only through our better parts, yet most of his plans are realized in and despite our frailty. Thus Saint Paul could say: “To keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me, but he said to me: ‘My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness’” (2 Cor 12:7-9).

Since this is part of the entire economy of salvation, we must learn to look upon our weaknesses with tender mercy.[12]

The evil one makes us see and condemn our frailty, whereas the Spirit brings it to light with tender love. Tenderness is the best way to touch the frailty within us. Pointing fingers and judging others are frequently signs of an inability to accept our own weaknesses, our own frailty. Only tender love will save us from the snares of the accuser (cf. Rev 12:10). That is why it is so important to encounter God’s mercy, especially in the Sacrament of Reconciliation, where we experience his truth and tenderness. Paradoxically, the evil one can also speak the truth to us, yet he does so only to condemn us. We know that God’s truth does not condemn, but instead welcomes, embraces, sustains and forgives us. That truth always presents itself to us like the merciful father in Jesus’ parable (cf. Lk 15:11-32). It comes out to meet us, restores our dignity, sets us back on our feet and rejoices for us, for, as the father says: “This my son was dead and is alive again he was lost and is found” (v. 24).

Even through Joseph’s fears, God’s will, his history and his plan were at work. Joseph, then, teaches us that faith in God includes believing that he can work even through our fears, our frailties and our weaknesses. He also teaches us that amid the tempests of life, we must never be afraid to let the Lord steer our course. At times, we want to be in complete control, yet God always sees the bigger picture.

3. An obedient father

As he had done with Mary, God revealed his saving plan to Joseph. He did so by using dreams, which in the Bible and among all ancient peoples, were considered a way for him to make his will known.[13]

Joseph was deeply troubled by Mary’s mysterious pregnancy. He did not want to “expose her to public disgrace”,[14] so he decided to “dismiss her quietly” (Mt 1:19).

In the first dream, an angel helps him resolve his grave dilemma: “Do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins” (Mt 1:20-21). Joseph’s response was immediate: “When Joseph awoke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him” (Mt 1:24). Obedience made it possible for him to surmount his difficulties and spare Mary.

In the second dream, the angel tells Joseph: “Get up, take the child and his mother, and flee to Egypt, and remain there until I tell you for Herod is about to search for the child, to destroy him” (Mt 2:13). Joseph did not hesitate to obey, regardless of the hardship involved: “He got up, took the child and his mother by night, and went to Egypt, and remained there until the death of Herod” (Mt 2:14-15).

In Egypt, Joseph awaited with patient trust the angel’s notice that he could safely return home. In a third dream, the angel told him that those who sought to kill the child were dead and ordered him to rise, take the child and his mother, and return to the land of Israel (cf. Mt 2:19-20). Once again, Joseph promptly obeyed. “He got up, took the child and his mother, and went to the land of Israel” (Mt 2:21).

During the return journey, “when Joseph heard that Archelaus was ruling over Judea in place of his father Herod, he was afraid to go there. After being warned in a dream” – now for the fourth time – “he went away to the district of Galilee. There he made his home in a town called Nazareth” (Mt 2:22-23).

The evangelist Luke, for his part, tells us that Joseph undertook the long and difficult journey from Nazareth to Bethlehem to be registered in his family’s town of origin in the census of the Emperor Caesar Augustus. There Jesus was born (cf. Lk 2:7) and his birth, like that of every other child, was recorded in the registry of the Empire. Saint Luke is especially concerned to tell us that Jesus’ parents observed all the prescriptions of the Law: the rites of the circumcision of Jesus, the purification of Mary after childbirth, the offering of the firstborn to God (cf. 2:21-24).[15]

In every situation, Joseph declared his own “fiat”, like those of Mary at the Annunciation and Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane.

In his role as the head of a family, Joseph taught Jesus to be obedient to his parents (cf. Lk 2:51), in accordance with God’s command (cf. Ex 20:12).

During the hidden years in Nazareth, Jesus learned at the school of Joseph to do the will of the Father. That will was to be his daily food (cf. Jn 4:34). Even at the most difficult moment of his life, in Gethsemane, Jesus chose to do the Father’s will rather than his own,[16] becoming “obedient unto death, even death on a cross” (Phil 2:8). The author of the Letter to the Hebrews thus concludes that Jesus “learned obedience through what he suffered” (5:8).

All this makes it clear that “Saint Joseph was called by God to serve the person and mission of Jesus directly through the exercise of his fatherhood” and that in this way, “he cooperated in the fullness of time in the great mystery of salvation and is truly a minister of salvation.”[17]

4. An accepting father

Joseph accepted Mary unconditionally. He trusted in the angel’s words. “The nobility of Joseph’s heart is such that what he learned from the law he made dependent on charity. Today, in our world where psychological, verbal and physical violence towards women is so evident, Joseph appears as the figure of a respectful and sensitive man. Even though he does not understand the bigger picture, he makes a decision to protect Mary’s good name, her dignity and her life. In his hesitation about how best to act, God helped him by enlightening his judgment”.[18]

Often in life, things happen whose meaning we do not understand. Our first reaction is frequently one of disappointment and rebellion. Joseph set aside his own ideas in order to accept the course of events and, mysterious as they seemed, to embrace them, take responsibility for them and make them part of his own history. Unless we are reconciled with our own history, we will be unable to take a single step forward, for we will always remain hostage to our expectations and the disappointments that follow.

The spiritual path that Joseph traces for us is not one that explains, but accepts. Only as a result of this acceptance, this reconciliation, can we begin to glimpse a broader history, a deeper meaning. We can almost hear an echo of the impassioned reply of Job to his wife, who had urged him to rebel against the evil he endured: “Shall we receive the good at the hand of God, and not receive the bad?” (Job 2:10).

Joseph is certainly not passively resigned, but courageously and firmly proactive. In our own lives, acceptance and welcome can be an expression of the Holy Spirit’s gift of fortitude. Only the Lord can give us the strength needed to accept life as it is, with all its contradictions, frustrations and disappointments.

Jesus’ appearance in our midst is a gift from the Father, which makes it possible for each of us to be reconciled to the flesh of our own history, even when we fail to understand it completely.

Just as God told Joseph: “Son of David, do not be afraid!” (Mt 1:20), so he seems to tell us: “Do not be afraid!” We need to set aside all anger and disappointment, and to embrace the way things are, even when they do not turn out as we wish. Not with mere resignation but with hope and courage. In this way, we become open to a deeper meaning. Our lives can be miraculously reborn if we find the courage to live them in accordance with the Gospel. It does not matter if everything seems to have gone wrong or some things can no longer be fixed. God can make flowers spring up from stony ground. Even if our heart condemns us, “God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything” (1 Jn 3:20).

Here, once again, we encounter that Christian realism which rejects nothing that exists. Reality, in its mysterious and irreducible complexity, is the bearer of existential meaning, with all its lights and shadows. Thus, the Apostle Paul can say: “We know that all things work together for good, for those who love God” (Rom 8:28). To which Saint Augustine adds, “even that which is called evil (etiam illud quod malum dicitur)”.[19] In this greater perspective, faith gives meaning to every event, however happy or sad.

Nor should we ever think that believing means finding facile and comforting solutions. The faith Christ taught us is what we see in Saint Joseph. He did not look for shortcuts, but confronted reality with open eyes and accepted personal responsibility for it.

Joseph’s attitude encourages us to accept and welcome others as they are, without exception, and to show special concern for the weak, for God chooses what is weak (cf. 1 Cor 1:27). He is the “Father of orphans and protector of widows” (Ps 68:6), who commands us to love the stranger in our midst.[20] I like to think that it was from Saint Joseph that Jesus drew inspiration for the parable of the prodigal son and the merciful father (cf. Lk 15:11-32).

5. A creatively courageous father

If the first stage of all true interior healing is to accept our personal history and embrace even the things in life that we did not choose, we must now add another important element: creative courage. This emerges especially in the way we deal with difficulties. In the face of difficulty, we can either give up and walk away, or somehow engage with it. At times, difficulties bring out resources we did not even think we had.

As we read the infancy narratives, we may often wonder why God did not act in a more direct and clear way. Yet God acts through events and people. Joseph was the man chosen by God to guide the beginnings of the history of redemption. He was the true “miracle” by which God saves the child and his mother. God acted by trusting in Joseph’s creative courage. Arriving in Bethlehem and finding no lodging where Mary could give birth, Joseph took a stable and, as best he could, turned it into a welcoming home for the Son of God come into the world (cf. Lk 2:6-7). Faced with imminent danger from Herod, who wanted to kill the child, Joseph was warned once again in a dream to protect the child, and rose in the middle of the night to prepare the flight into Egypt (cf. Mt 2:13-14).

A superficial reading of these stories can often give the impression that the world is at the mercy of the strong and mighty, but the “good news” of the Gospel consists in showing that, for all the arrogance and violence of worldly powers, God always finds a way to carry out his saving plan. So too, our lives may at times seem to be at the mercy of the powerful, but the Gospel shows us what counts. God always finds a way to save us, provided we show the same creative courage as the carpenter of Nazareth, who was able to turn a problem into a possibility by trusting always in divine providence.

If at times God seems not to help us, surely this does not mean that we have been abandoned, but instead are being trusted to plan, to be creative, and to find solutions ourselves.

That kind of creative courage was shown by the friends of the paralytic, who lowered him from the roof in order to bring him to Jesus (cf. Lk 5:17-26). Difficulties did not stand in the way of those friends’ boldness and persistence. They were convinced that Jesus could heal the man, and “finding no way to bring him in because of the crowd, they went up on the roof and let him down with his bed through the tiles into the middle of the crowd in front of Jesus. When he saw their faith, he said, ‘Friend, your sins are forgiven you’” (vv. 19-20). Jesus recognized the creative faith with which they sought to bring their sick friend to him.

The Gospel does not tell us how long Mary, Joseph and the child remained in Egypt. Yet they certainly needed to eat, to find a home and employment. It does not take much imagination to fill in those details. The Holy Family had to face concrete problems like every other family, like so many of our migrant brothers and sisters who, today too, risk their lives to escape misfortune and hunger. In this regard, I consider Saint Joseph the special patron of all those forced to leave their native lands because of war, hatred, persecution and poverty.

At the end of every account in which Joseph plays a role, the Gospel tells us that he gets up, takes the child and his mother, and does what God commanded him (cf. Mt 1:24 2:14.21). Indeed, Jesus and Mary his Mother are the most precious treasure of our faith.[21]

In the divine plan of salvation, the Son is inseparable from his Mother, from Mary, who “advanced in her pilgrimage of faith, and faithfully persevered in her union with her Son until she stood at the cross”.[22]

We should always consider whether we ourselves are protecting Jesus and Mary, for they are also mysteriously entrusted to our own responsibility, care and safekeeping. The Son of the Almighty came into our world in a state of great vulnerability. He needed to be defended, protected, cared for and raised by Joseph. God trusted Joseph, as did Mary, who found in him someone who would not only save her life, but would always provide for her and her child. In this sense, Saint Joseph could not be other than the Guardian of the Church, for the Church is the continuation of the Body of Christ in history, even as Mary’s motherhood is reflected in the motherhood of the Church.[23] In his continued protection of the Church, Joseph continues to protect the child and his mother, and we too, by our love for the Church, continue to love the child and his mother.

That child would go on to say: “As you did it to one of the least of these who are members of my family, you did it to me” (Mt 25:40). Consequently, every poor, needy, suffering or dying person, every stranger, every prisoner, every infirm person is “the child” whom Joseph continues to protect. For this reason, Saint Joseph is invoked as protector of the unfortunate, the needy, exiles, the afflicted, the poor and the dying. Consequently, the Church cannot fail to show a special love for the least of our brothers and sisters, for Jesus showed a particular concern for them and personally identified with them. From Saint Joseph, we must learn that same care and responsibility. We must learn to love the child and his mother, to love the sacraments and charity, to love the Church and the poor. Each of these realities is always the child and his mother.

An aspect of Saint Joseph that has been emphasized from the time of the first social Encyclical, Pope Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum, is his relation to work. Saint Joseph was a carpenter who earned an honest living to provide for his family. From him, Jesus learned the value, the dignity and the joy of what it means to eat bread that is the fruit of one’s own labour.

In our own day, when employment has once more become a burning social issue, and unemployment at times reaches record levels even in nations that for decades have enjoyed a certain degree of prosperity, there is a renewed need to appreciate the importance of dignified work, of which Saint Joseph is an exemplary patron.

Work is a means of participating in the work of salvation, an opportunity to hasten the coming of the Kingdom, to develop our talents and abilities, and to put them at the service of society and fraternal communion. It becomes an opportunity for the fulfilment not only of oneself, but also of that primary cell of society which is the family. A family without work is particularly vulnerable to difficulties, tensions, estrangement and even break-up. How can we speak of human dignity without working to ensure that everyone is able to earn a decent living?

Working persons, whatever their job may be, are cooperating with God himself, and in some way become creators of the world around us. The crisis of our time, which is economic, social, cultural and spiritual, can serve as a summons for all of us to rediscover the value, the importance and necessity of work for bringing about a new “normal” from which no one is excluded. Saint Joseph’s work reminds us that God himself, in becoming man, did not disdain work. The loss of employment that affects so many of our brothers and sisters, and has increased as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, should serve as a summons to review our priorities. Let us implore Saint Joseph the Worker to help us find ways to express our firm conviction that no young person, no person at all, no family should be without work!

7. A father in the shadows

The Polish writer Jan Dobraczyński, in his book The Shadow of the Father,[24] tells the story of Saint Joseph’s life in the form of a novel. He uses the evocative image of a shadow to define Joseph. In his relationship to Jesus, Joseph was the earthly shadow of the heavenly Father: he watched over him and protected him, never leaving him to go his own way. We can think of Moses’ words to Israel: “In the wilderness… you saw how the Lord your God carried you, just as one carries a child, all the way that you travelled” (Deut 1:31). In a similar way, Joseph acted as a father for his whole life.[25]

Fathers are not born, but made. A man does not become a father simply by bringing a child into the world, but by taking up the responsibility to care for that child. Whenever a man accepts responsibility for the life of another, in some way he becomes a father to that person.

Children today often seem orphans, lacking fathers. The Church too needs fathers. Saint Paul’s words to the Corinthians remain timely: “Though you have countless guides in Christ, you do not have many fathers” (1 Cor 4:15). Every priest or bishop should be able to add, with the Apostle: “I became your father in Christ Jesus through the Gospel” (ibid.). Paul likewise calls the Galatians: “My little children, with whom I am again in travail until Christ be formed in you!” (4:19).

Being a father entails introducing children to life and reality. Not holding them back, being overprotective or possessive, but rather making them capable of deciding for themselves, enjoying freedom and exploring new possibilities. Perhaps for this reason, Joseph is traditionally called a “most chaste” father. That title is not simply a sign of affection, but the summation of an attitude that is the opposite of possessiveness. Chastity is freedom from possessiveness in every sphere of one’s life. Only when love is chaste, is it truly love. A possessive love ultimately becomes dangerous: it imprisons, constricts and makes for misery. God himself loved humanity with a chaste love he left us free even to go astray and set ourselves against him. The logic of love is always the logic of freedom, and Joseph knew how to love with extraordinary freedom. He never made himself the centre of things. He did not think of himself, but focused instead on the lives of Mary and Jesus.

Joseph found happiness not in mere self-sacrifice but in self-gift. In him, we never see frustration but only trust. His patient silence was the prelude to concrete expressions of trust. Our world today needs fathers. It has no use for tyrants who would domineer others as a means of compensating for their own needs. It rejects those who confuse authority with authoritarianism, service with servility, discussion with oppression, charity with a welfare mentality, power with destruction. Every true vocation is born of the gift of oneself, which is the fruit of mature sacrifice. The priesthood and consecrated life likewise require this kind of maturity. Whatever our vocation, whether to marriage, celibacy or virginity, our gift of self will not come to fulfilment if it stops at sacrifice were that the case, instead of becoming a sign of the beauty and joy of love, the gift of self would risk being an expression of unhappiness, sadness and frustration.

When fathers refuse to live the lives of their children for them, new and unexpected vistas open up. Every child is the bearer of a unique mystery that can only be brought to light with the help of a father who respects that child’s freedom. A father who realizes that he is most a father and educator at the point when he becomes “useless”, when he sees that his child has become independent and can walk the paths of life unaccompanied. When he becomes like Joseph, who always knew that his child was not his own but had merely been entrusted to his care. In the end, this is what Jesus would have us understand when he says: “Call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven” (Mt 23:9).

In every exercise of our fatherhood, we should always keep in mind that it has nothing to do with possession, but is rather a “sign” pointing to a greater fatherhood. In a way, we are all like Joseph: a shadow of the heavenly Father, who “makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust” (Mt 5:45). And a shadow that follows his Son.

“Get up, take the child and his mother” (Mt 2:13), God told Saint Joseph.

The aim of this Apostolic Letter is to increase our love for this great saint, to encourage us to implore his intercession and to imitate his virtues and his zeal.

Indeed, the proper mission of the saints is not only to obtain miracles and graces, but to intercede for us before God, like Abraham[26] and Moses[27], and like Jesus, the “one mediator” (1 Tim 2:5), who is our “advocate” with the Father (1 Jn 2:1) and who “always lives to make intercession for [us]” (Heb 7:25 cf. Rom 8:34).

The saints help all the faithful “to strive for the holiness and the perfection of their particular state of life”.[28] Their lives are concrete proof that it is possible to put the Gospel into practice.

Jesus told us: “Learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart” (Mt 11:29). The lives of the saints too are examples to be imitated. Saint Paul explicitly says this: “Be imitators of me!” (1 Cor 4:16).[29] By his eloquent silence, Saint Joseph says the same.

Before the example of so many holy men and women, Saint Augustine asked himself: “What they could do, can you not also do?” And so he drew closer to his definitive conversion, when he could exclaim: “Late have I loved you, Beauty ever ancient, ever new!”[30]

We need only ask Saint Joseph for the grace of graces: our conversion.

Let us now make our prayer to him:

Hail, Guardian of the Redeemer,
Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
To you God entrusted his only Son
in you Mary placed her trust
with you Christ became man.

Blessed Joseph, to us too,
show yourself a father
and guide us in the path of life.
Obtain for us grace, mercy and courage,
and defend us from every evil. Amen.

Given in Rome, at Saint John Lateran, on 8 December, Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in the year 2020, the eighth of my Pontificate.

[1] Lk 4:22 Jn 6:42 cf. Mt 13:55 Mk 6:3.

[2] S. RITUUM CONGREGATIO, Quemadmodum Deus (8 December 1870): ASS 6 (1870-71), 194.

[3] Cf. Address to ACLI on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph the Worker (1 May 1955): AAS 47 (1955), 406.

[4] Cf. Apostolic Exhortation Redemptoris Custos (15 August 1989): AAS 82 (1990), 5-34.

[5] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1014.

[6] Meditation in the Time of Pandemic (27 March 2020): L’Osservatore Romano, 29 March 2020, p. 10.

[7] In Matthaeum Homiliae, V, 3: PG 57, 58.

[8] Homily (19 March 1966): Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, IV (1966), 110.

[9] Cf. Autobiography, 6, 6-8.

[10] Every day, for over forty years, following Lauds I have recited a prayer to Saint Joseph taken from a nineteenth-century French prayer book of the Congregation of the Sisters of Jesus and Mary. It expresses devotion and trust, and even poses a certain challenge to Saint Joseph: “Glorious Patriarch Saint Joseph, whose power makes the impossible possible, come to my aid in these times of anguish and difficulty. Take under your protection the serious and troubling situations that I commend to you, that they may have a happy outcome. My beloved father, all my trust is in you. Let it not be said that I invoked you in vain, and since you can do everything with Jesus and Mary, show me that your goodness is as great as your power. Amen.”

[11] Cf. Deut 4:31 Ps 69:16 78:38 86:5 111:4 116:5 Jer 31:20.

[12] Cf. Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Gaudium (24 November 2013), 88, 288: AAS 105 (2013), 1057, 1136-1137.

[13] Cf. Gen 20:3 28:12 31:11.24 40:8 41:1-32 Num 12:6 1 Sam 3:3-10 Dan 2, 4 Job 33:15.

[14] In such cases, provisions were made even for stoning (cf. Deut 22:20-21).

[15] Cf. Lev 12:1-8 Ex 13:2.

[16] Cf. Mt 26:39 Mk 14:36 Lk 22:42.

[17] SAINT JOHN PAUL II, Apostolic Exhortation Redemptoris Custos (15 August 1989), 8: AAS 82 (1990), 14.

[19] Enchiridion de fide, spe et caritate, 3.11: PL 40, 236.

[20] Cf. Deut 10:19 Ex 22:20-22 Lk 10:29-37.

[21] Cf. S. RITUUM CONGREGATIO, Quemadmodum Deus (8 December 1870): ASS 6 (1870-1871), 193 BLESSED PIUS IX, Apostolic Letter Inclytum Patriarcham (7 July 1871): l.c., 324-327.

[22] SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church Lumen Gentium, 58.

[23] Catechism of the Catholic Church, 963-970.

[24] Original edition: Cień Ojca, Warsaw, 1977.

[25] Cf. SAINT JOHN PAUL II, Apostolic Exhortation Redemptoris Custos, 7-8: AAS 82 (1990), 12-16.

[28] SECOND VATICAN ECUMENICAL COUNCIL, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, 42.

[29] Cf. 1 Cor 11:1 Phil 3:17 1 Thess 1:6.

[30] Confessions, VIII, 11, 27: PL 32, 761 X, 27, 38: PL 32, 795.

Papo Secos | Portuguese Rolls

Ingredients US Metric

  • For activating the yeast
  • 1/2 cup lukewarm water (105°F to 110°F | 41°C to 43°C)
  • 2 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast
  • 1 tablespoon granulated sugar
  • For the bread
  • 5 cups bread flour, plus up to 3 tablespoons more, if needed
  • 1 1/2 cups lukewarm water (105°F to 110°F | 41°C to 43°C)
  • 1 tablespoon table salt
  • 2 tablespoons salted or unsalted butter
  • Cornmeal


In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the dough hook, mix the water, yeast, and sugar on low speed until combined. Let sit for 10 minutes until foamy.

Add the flour, water, and butter and stir on low until the ingredients are combined and a cohesive dough forms, 3 minutes. Cover with plastic and let sit for 30 minutes.

Sprinkle the salt over the top of the dough and mix on low (speed 2) for 5 minutes. If the dough rides up the hook, use a spatula to scrape it down.

Bump the mixer to medium-high (speed 7) and knead for 2 minutes more. The dough should pull away from the sides of the bowl and be slightly sticky. If the dough hasn’t released from the bottom of the bowl, add some more flour—a tablespoon at a time—until it does.

Remove the bowl from the mixer, cover it with plastic wrap, and place in a warm (68°F to 72°F | 20°C to 22°C), draft-free spot. The inside of your oven with the light turned on is ideal. Let the dough double in size, about 1 hour.

Reach down 1 side of the bowl and gently but firmly pull the dough up and fold it over itself. Don’t punch it down. Rotate the bowl a quarter turn and repeat. Continue turning and folding 2 more times. Cover and let rest until doubled in size, about 30 minutes.

Repeat the turning and folding process, cover with plastic, and let the dough rest until doubled in size, about 30 minutes more.

Divide the dough into ten equal pieces, about 4 1/4 ounces (120 grams) each. Lightly flour your hands. Cup one hand over a chunk of dough and roll it on your work surface in a circle to tighten the ball. Being somewhat neurotic, I count the turns—no fewer and no more than 40 revolutions. Repeat with the remaining dough.

Place the balls on a baking sheet lined with a floured non-terrycloth kitchen towel or a baker’s couche. Cover them with a kitchen towel. Let rest for 20 minutes.

Transfer the balls to your work surface. Heavily dust the towel again.

Flour your hands. Flatten a dough ball into a 6-inch (15-cm) disc. Using the side of your hand, make a deep crease (think karate chop) across the middle of the disc.

Grab both ends of the crease and gently tug them to elongate the dough into a slight oval.

Fold one half of the dough over the other along the crease. The dough will have a half-moon shape.

Twist the ends of the half-moon into fat points and, using your thumbs, flatten them a bit to seal.

Gently transfer the papo seco to the towel, seam-side down. As you shape more rolls, arrange them in a row, few inches apart. Pull the towel up between each row to create a ridge that will hold the shape of the rolls during proofing. Repeat the shaping and lining up the papo-secos, folding up the towel between rows.

Cover the rolls with a towel and let rise in a warm place until almost doubled in size, about 30 minutes.

Meanwhile, position a rack in the middle of the oven and slip in a baking stone or tiles. Place an empty metal tray on any rack that won’t interfere with the rising papo secos. (Do not use a glass pan as it could shatter.) Crank the heat to 500°F (260°C). The oven and stone will need time to properly heat.

Have a cup of very hot tap water at the ready.

Coat a baking peel or rimless baking sheet with cornmeal. Carefully turn a few of the papo secos seam-side up and arrange them on the peel.

Place the front edge of the peel at the back of the baking stone and quickly yank it toward you to shift the dough onto the baking stone. Repeat with the remaining papo secos. Quickly but carefully pour the hot water into the metal tray and immediately shut the oven door to trap the steam. Immediately reduce the heat to 425°F (218°C).

Bake the papo secos until they’re puffed and golden brown, 15 to 20 minutes. Remove them from the oven and let them cool on a rack. To get that characteristic crusty outside, let the roll sit out several more hours prior to devouring.

Print Recipe

Recipe Testers' Reviews

I grew up with these crusty rolls. They were delivered daily before breakfast along with one giant version, our daily bread. Warm. Crusty. This was our bakery white bread. My mom baked everything else but these. When my daughter started eating table food (pre-teeth and before words), she’d point to the papo secos and say "uhm. uhm. " Then, when she could talk, she’d call them pãozinho, the Portuguese word for "little bread," and shake all over with excitement. She still calls them pãozinho and up until last month, we only had them for very special treats from a Portuguese bakery so that we could look forward to the ones baked in the Azores during our yearly visits. Those were so special. They don’t home deliver anymore but you can get them from the bakery still warm almost any time of day.

With the physical isolation craze of baking and numerous social network posts sporting papo secos, plus the ugly chance we may not be able to visit the Azores this year, I also jumped on the homemade papo secos bandwagon. My first attempt was quite successful, but I found the shaping to be somewhat challenging and the crust to be short-lived. When I read this recipe, I just knew that I could get the shaping right. Although I want to believe it was the wording in the recipe that provided the “click” in my understanding, it’s possible that I had already been somewhat “primed” from previous recipes. This recipe also only had a crusty exterior for about 60 minutes then softened. Although not crispy, the crust was chewy crusty when compared to the interior which was light yet dense with very even crumb. This might have been from using all purpose flour since I neither had access to bread flour or vital wheat gluten to convert my AP flour to bread flour. However, I must say that the combination of this bun with the bifana did take me back to my years when I lived in the Azores and the light yet slightly dense interior was perfect for sopping up the bifana juices! Yum! Nevertheless, this recipe creates a roll that I’m pleased to call pãozinho!

This is a time-consuming recipe but it isn't difficult at all and the results are worth every minute.

Bread recipes can be daunting and working with dough can be challenging, but this dough was a joy. It came together and kneaded nicely in the mixer. By the time the kneading was done (I did 15 minutes), the mixing bowl was clean. It rose right on schedule (popping the bowl in the oven with the light on is the way to go) and was easy to work with when forming the balls and then the rolls. Instead of just rolling the dough to form balls, which didn't seem to "tighten the ball," as the recipe says, I used my thumb to press it in as I rolled it and that led to nicely shaped and tight dough balls. The forming instructions looked complicated at first glance but made sense when I was working with an actual dough ball.

The dough was quite airy and while I wouldn't call the rolls dense, they weren't as light on the inside as I expected. But they had a really nice crumb and, yes, a crusty exterior. As the recipe said, the crust got crisper after letting the rolls sit out for a few hours. But I started these in the morning and had one for lunch so I didn't wait for that! They really did taste just like the Portuguese rolls we get from the grocery store.

Who doesn't love a good homemade roll? The dough was so quick and easy to bring together. My Kitchenaid literally did all the work.

The dough was slightly sticky, smooth, and elastic and yes, it thwacks the sides of the bowl clean! Rising times were spot on. When it came time to shape the rolls, I reread the directions a few times and it made sense while I was doing it. Shaping took no time at all. The rolls were done and had nice color in 18 minutes—crusty outside and light and fluffy inside. However, once they cooled, the outer crust was no longer crunchy. I am sure popping them in a hot oven will re-crisp them perfectly.

Just remember to turn the oven down once you add the water for steam. I forgot on my second batch until they were mostly done, but honestly, they were a touch darker, but still moist and tender inside.

I was really surprised at how well these turned out for me. Either this is the ultimate bread recipe or I'm just finally getting good at yeasted breads. No matter which, these are delicious and pretty quick to make. And mine even looked (mostly) like the photograph! These baked up with a beautiful golden crust and an incredibly fluffy interior.

My measurements yielded 12 rolls, meaning that there were 2 "free agents" for me to slather with butter and eat immediately. They do develop a much nicer crusty finish after sitting out for a while, but I dare you to wait that long before eating just one. Or, in my greedy case, two. The biggest problem I've found with bread rolls is that they aren't sturdy enough for filling with anything substantial. These, however, hold up so well because of the outside crust that I filled them with pork bifanas and they didn't fall apart or get soggy at all.

I found all the measurements and timing accurate. My dough was definitely doubled after 1 1/2 hours, both times. As the author suggests, I often put my dough in the oven with the light on and it works like a charm. Instead of using a towel to hold the formed rolls, I used my metal baguette tray and it held all 12 perfectly. I cooked 6 at a time, using my cast iron sheet pan.

Absolutely lovely! These buns are soft and tasty. We made pulled pork sandwiches and these were able to hold all the wonderful juices and not fall apart. I'm convinced that taking the time to make your own bread is worth the effort! These are far better than any bread I've ever purchased at a Portuguese bakery. I may have to double the recipe next time!

I found 35 revolutions to be a bit much. I gave it about 10. I placed my dough on a baking sheet lined with parchment and dusted with flour. I hate washing kitchen towels covered in flour! I covered them with plastic wrap. Later, when I returned my buns back to the dusted parchment-lined baking sheet and didn't bother to "prop them up," they held their shape just fine.

I don't have a baking stone. I used the same baking sheet lined with parchment that my buns had been proofing on to bake with. I poured water into the metal tray, popped the baking sheet in the oven, and quickly closed the door. Yes, the buns were on a "cold" baking sheet, but they didn't seem to suffer! Plus, I didn't have to wrestle with a baking peel and try to get the buns onto a stone without losing them to the back of my oven. Mine took 30 to 35mins to bake to golden brown, so they took a bit longer because they weren't on a hot stone, but I would bake them this way again and recommend my method which was far easier than what was written.

The exterior was soft (crusty isn't really an appropriate name for these buns) with some nice big air bubbles. The inside was light and airy but the crumb was dense (it didn't have big holes).

The flavor of these were outstanding and I will absolutely make them again.

These rolls were definitely soft and delicious. They had a chew to them. They came out delicious. The directions for shaping were easy to follow. I saw David's rolls on his Instagram and his look like mine (which was a relief for me!) I toasted them up the next day for dinner and man oh man were they scrumptious. They also freeze well too.


#LeitesCulinaria. We'd love to see your creations on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter.


I’ve made this several times already… And I will say…. this recipe makes 8 rolls for me when I weigh the dough to 4 1/4 oz. Makes 10 rolls… when weighed to just 4oz, but the rolls end up being too small..

Also, the step where you let the dough rise for 30 minutes… from my experience.. it takes longer than 30 minutes for the dough to double in size. I’m not even sure if the two 30 minute rest/rise is necessary… All I know is that the second rest/rise.. after the 1 hour rise… it takes longer than 30 minutes for the dough to double in size the second/third time..

The rolls taste best fresh out from the oven…

Thanks for sharing your experience, TJ. We’re so glad you’re enjoying them. Rise time can vary significantly depending on kitchen temperature and humidity.


  • 5 pounds tomatoes
  • 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil, plus more for drizzling
  • 1 large onion, halved lengthwise and thinly sliced
  • 4 garlic cloves, thinly sliced
  • Pinch of crushed red pepper
  • Salt
  • 1/2 pound stale, crustless, 1-inch Italian bread cubes (4 cups)
  • 1 cup basil leaves, torn
  • Ricotta cheese, for serving

Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Fill a large bowl with ice water. Cut a slit in the base of each tomato. Add the tomatoes to the boiling water and blanch just until the skins start to split, about 10 seconds. Transfer the blanched tomatoes to the ice water to cool.

Peel and halve the tomatoes crosswise. Working over a mesh strainer set over a large bowl, pry out the seeds and press the tomato juice and pulp through the strainer. Discard the seeds. Coarsely chop the tomatoes.

Wipe out the pot and heat the 1/2 cup of olive oil. Add the onion and cook over moderate heat, stirring, until softened, about 6 minutes. Add the garlic and cook for 1 minute. Add the tomatoes and crushed red pepper and season with salt. Cover partially and simmer over moderately high heat until the tomatoes have cooked down, about 30 minutes.

Add the bread and the reserved tomato juices to the soup and cook, mashing the bread until fully incorporated, and season with salt. Stir in the basil leaves. Spoon the soup into shallow bowls, drizzle lightly with olive oil, top with a dollop of ricotta and serve right away.

Papa Louie has tanned skin, a bald head, dark bushy eyebrows, and a big black mustache. He wears a white chef hat, a thin red neckerchief wrapped around his neck, a long-sleeved white buttoned dress shirt, a small red apron, blue pants, and brown sneakers with gray soles and dark brown laces.

In Papa Louie 2: When Burgers Attack!, his Style B is mostly the same as his regular outfit, but in different colors. He wears a long-sleeved blue shirt, a small white apron, blue pants, and white sneakers with red laces.


His outfit got remodeled and more detail was added to his mustache.


Style B

He wears a red shirt under a white collared suit with dark blue buttons, pockets, a red tie, and a lavender flower pinned to its lapel. He also wears white pants held by a blue belt with a grayish-silver buckle.

He also wears this outfit during the Romano Wedding celebration in Papa's Pastaria, and is Papa Louie's Style A in Papa's Pastaria To Go!.

Style H (Christmas)

He wears a green sweater decorated with red and white diamond-like sequels going across the top half, and small white lozenge diamond sequels shown in the lower half. His chef hat has the same design as his sweater. He also puts back his red neckerchief and apron along with his white pants.

Style H (Halloween)

In games where he dresses up for Halloween, Papa Louie wears a mummy costume. He wears a pale, grayish blue clothing with several bandages wrapped around his body, a chef hat painted in moderate gamboge with royal blue lines flowing down, and a gambogeish gold neckerchief and apron with blue triangular and line patterns. He also wears black sneakers with gold laces.

Beach Outfit

He is wearing a bathing suit in Papa's Freezeria/To Go!, Papa Louie 2, and Papa Louie 3 as his Style C and Papa Louie Pals outfit. It consists of a blue and white striped sleeveless shirt with a red lifebuoy tucked down to his waist and red and black sport shades sunglasses.

Arcade Referee Outfit

He wears an arcade referee uniform that consists of a black and white striped long sleeves shirt with a black collar. He also wears a white whistle with a red collar, black plain pants held by a black basic belt with a dark gray buckle, black laced shoes with white laces and black soles, and his chef hat.

Wingeria Outfit

He wears a black chef hat, red sunglasses, a black shirt with flame patterns, a bracelet, blue pants, and black shoes with red laces and brown soles. His mustache is now blond.

OnionFest Outfit

He wears an army green chef hat, with a handkerchief of the same color. He wears a purple long-sleeved chef shirt, black pants, an army green apron, and brown shoes with black soles and purple laces.

Starlight BBQ Outfit

He wears a white chef hat with blue stars, a white neckerchief, a blue shirt, black pants, a red and white striped apron, and blue shoes with red stars, white laces, and black soles.

Pirate Bash Outfit

He wears a black chef hat with dark blue stripes under a white skull print, a dark blue eye patch, a white pirate shirt under a blue sleeveless vest with golden buttons, black pants held by two belts: a red cloth one, and a leather one. He wears black shoes with brown laces and soles.

Wizard Outfit

His eyebrows and mustache are now gray. He wears a black chef shirt with gold buttons under a dark purple cape with gold lining and moons, stars, and planets held by a Warp Coin, a black apron, a chef hat with the same pattern as his cape, and brown pointed shoes with black soles and black straps with golden buckles.

New Year's Outfit

He has unequally sized eyes and an orange mustache and eyebrows. He wears a pink chef hat with white stripes at the bottom and white dots at the top, a yellow buttoned shirt with black stitches, a serif "X" printed on it, and black ends on its sleeves, a light blue neckerchief, indigo pants with rainbow pin stripes held by a dark gray belt with a pink buckle, and white shoes with yellow laces and gray soles.

Zombie Outfit

His skin is zombie-green with gray spots. He wears a slightly tattered gray chef hat with darker gray splats, a slightly tattered dark red dress shirt with a collar, rolled-up sleeves, black lines on his sleeves, black sleeve ends with dark red buttons, and dark red buttons on a black line in the center, black pants, a slightly tattered dark red apron, and black moccasins with zombie-green laces and black soles.

Papa Fresh Outfit

He wears a white chef hat with blue lining and a golden bead on it, purple sunglasses with a green left rim with a point on its top right, and a black dress shirt with blue buttons under light blue overalls with gray buckles, "PAPA FRESH" printed on them in a cartoonish green font surrounded by a light purple paint border, and the left buckle open, revealing a purple inside with gray stripes and a white border. He also wears a golden neckerchief and white shoes with a golden bead at the top, black laces between blue lines, a gold streak below a smaller black streak, and black soles.

Style B (Papa Louie 2)

He wears his Style A, but a blue shirt and pants, white apron, and white shoes with black soles and red laces.

Style B (Papa Louie 3)

He wears his Style A under a blue parka with red buttons, a red scarf with white lines and blue symbols, and white shoes with black soles and red laces.


WAKEA in the form of Atea or Vatea, replaced in New Zealand by Rangi (Lani) meaning "Sky," appears as a primary male generative force throughout eastern Polynesia, the name a symbol of the upper regions of air, whence descend sunshine and rain to fertilize earth. The wife Papa, a word applied in Hawaii to a flat surface or layer, symbolizes the warm upper layer of earth, where lies the fertilized seed awaiting the period of maturity to spring into life. But to the Polynesian these functions of sky and earth are themselves direct analogues of the process of human reproduction. Animate nature manifested in the physical universe is equally potent, if properly approached, to insure human fertility. Father Sky and Mother Earth are the first parents of human life on earth as they are of plant life that springs living from earth under the influence of sun and rain from heaven and of animal life that feeds upon it.

At the time of foreign contact Hawaii, too, counted its stock from Wakea and Papa as the official parent-pair. Their names occur on the earliest genealogy of the race given out by Hawaiian students at the mission high school in 1838 and repeated forty years later by Judge Fornander in his Account of the Polynesian Race. They are quoted by Malo and incorporated into the report made in 1904 by a committee of native scholars appointed by the legislature to inquire into the true native tradition of "the beginning of the Hawaiian people."[1]

[1. Mo'olelo Hawaii , p. 36 Fornander, Polynesian Race , I, 188-90 Malo, p. 311 Kepelino, Appendix, p. 182.]

Equally on the common tongue, although stoutly repudiated by the Mo'olelo Hawaii and called "doubtful" by Malo, was the story of Wakea's desire for his youthful daughter, the plan to allay Papa's suspicions by instituting taboo nights when men should live apart from their wives, Papa's discovery, her repudiation of Wakea and her taking a mate in another land, finally her return to Wakea upon hearing that he, too, had solaced himself with another wife.[2] A famous chant of Kamehameha's day tells the story under the figure of the "birth of islands," symbolizing by means of the various alliances of the two parents in the myth the actual rise of ruling chief families on the islands of the Hawaiian group.[3] The sly sobriquet of "Wakea" said to have been attached to the Ka-'I-'i-mamao to whom the Kumulipo chant was allegedly dedicated, who took his own daughter to wife, further shows the myth to have been current at the time that the prose note to the Kumulipo was written down. More obscurely but with equal consistency was repeated the name of Haloa, the first living child born to Wakea, some said by his own daughter, and named from the "long-stalk" ( ha-loa ) of the taro plant that grew from the body of an earlier embryo child buried beside the house.[4]

Thus heading the genealogy of chiefs, their story woven into chant and applied to contemporary court life, Wakea and Papa seem to have been in historic times at least the officially accepted progenitors through Haloa of the Hawaiian people, if not of the whole race of humankind. The Mo'olelo Hawaii reads, "Wakea and Papa were the first ancestors of the Hawaiian people, both chiefs and commoners."

[2. Mo'olelo Hawaii , pp. 37-40 Malo, pp. 314-15 Kepelino, pp. 62-67 Kamakau, Ke Au Okoa , October 14, 1869 Fornander, Collection "Memoirs," No. 6), p. 250 Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology , chap. xx.

3. Fornander, Collection ("Memoirs," No. 4), pp. 15-16, 17.

4. Malo, p. 320 Kepelino, Appendix, pp. 192-93 Fornander, Collection ("Memoirs." No. 6), p. 319.]

"This is the genealogy of the Hawaiian people that is, from Kumulipo-ka-po to Wakea and Papa," concludes the committee report of 1904. Malo calls Haloa "progenitor of all the peoples of the earth." "Now you must understand that the children born from Haloa, these are yourselves," reads a passage from the manuscript notes kept by the Hawaiian Naua Society, organized during the period of the late monarchy. It is not difficult to see that by the name "Haloa" the Hawaiian genealogist is merely symbolizing the male sex organ. It is the genius of the storyteller, probably stimulated by the habit of concealing under cover of myth some court incident of his own day, that has woven so rich a background of fiction about these ancient impersonations of the sex function invoked to insure permanence in the family succession.

Important as the two seem to be as parent-pair in modern Hawaiian tradition, in the Kumulipo, Wakea and Papa play an apparently minor part. Always their names and story come at the end of a section as if possibly inserted as an afterthought or introduced late into the family tradition. Still less is the name of Haloa important. The Opu'upu'u branch of the twelfth section closes with his birth: "Wakea lived ( noho ) with Haumea, with Papa, with Haohokakalani [commonly written Ho'ohokukalani], Haloa was born," reads the passage. Only in a brief peroration to Papa at the close of the thirteenth section is the story noticed of Wakea's deception of Papa, the taboos imposed, and the birth of the embryo Long-stalk and the living son Haloa. At line 1951 Haloa's name is thrust into the list of grandchildren with whom Haumea "slept" ( moe ). Otherwise he has no important place upon the final genealogy leading to the chief stock with which the chant concludes. Papa and Wakea do not appear there at all. Papa's traditional life as a woman in the land of Lua is transferred to Haumea or perhaps originally told of La'ila'i. Altogether we must suppose

that Wakea and Papa as parent-pair responsible through Haloa for the spread of mankind over earth had no initial importance for the family whose divine ancestors were commemorated in the Kumulipo prayer chant.

In the genealogy of the fourteenth section, certainly, Wakea is rather fully represented, but here again his story stands at the close rather than the beginning of the genealogical listing with which the chant opens. This breaks off at line 1840 with the birth of Wakea under the name of Pau-pani-a[wa]kea, "End-of-the-shutting-out-of-light." Hawaiians call midday Awakea and the eulogistic title may herald the light of the midday sun when no shadow is cast and a magician's power is greatest. It further suggests the myth so fully developed in Tahiti and New Zealand of the separation of Sky Father and Earth Mother in order to give light and space for life to expand on earth, or that told in Mangaia of Vatea carried upward by the wind with his wife Papa into the upper world of light.[5]

Born with Wakea are two others, Lehu'ula, generally written Lihau'ula and sometimes identified with Kanaloa, and Makulukulu. The three, according to a perhaps late tradition, represent the ancestors of the three classes of Hawaiian society: chiefs, priests, and commoners.[6] The chiefs held the land under a single ruling chief who apportioned it, and each farmed out his share to a succession of overseers whose duty it was to see that a proportionate share of the produce was brought in as tribute to his overlord.[7] Makulukulu in the trio I take to represent this function of the commoners, and the "stars hung in the heavens," enumerated at length in the lines following to symbolize the "bundles" brought in as tribute at the Makahiki or some

[5. Henry, pp. 405-7, 409-13 White, I, 161-62 Smith, pp. 121-22 Gill, pp. 6-8.

6. Fornander, Polynesian Race , I, 112.

7. Malo, pp. 78-90, 96-101 Kepelino, pp. 140-51 Hobbs, chap. i.]

other great festival of the clan, the whole representing, according to Pokini, the procession arriving with their gifts to lay before the young heir, made up into a pair of bundles and "swung" over a shoulder pole as was the customary way of carrying loads in Hawaii.

The Makahiki itself takes its name from the rising of the Pleiades, known throughout Polynesia as Makali'i, and Makulukulu may perhaps be a chant name for Makali'i. In the migration legend of the great fisherman Hawaii-loa, who discovers and renames the islands of the group, Makali'i is said to be navigator of the fleet and to become ancestor of commoners as Hawaii-loa is ancestor of a chief stock.[8] In fiction Makali'i is a popular character and always represented in connection with food supply. He is a chief living on the island of Kauai, or at South Cape on the island of Hawaii, or "in Kahiki," or in the upper heaven as seer and caretaker of the vegetable garden of the gods Kane and Kanaloa. His men have special arts in fishing. He controls vegetable food and is niggardly with it, "hangs it up in the heavens," as the saying is, when a drought burns up a crop. Always in the stories there is a thief who robs the patch or cuts the cords of the net in which his foodstuffs have been stored away. A string figure called "net of Makali'i" shows the net, its several divisions, and the exact point where, with a single cut, the whole figure falls to pieces. One of the ceremonies of the Makahiki festival was the shaking of a loose-meshed net filled with all kinds of vegetable foods in order to deter mine by the amount that fell through the meshes the success of the crop for the coming year.[9]

For the identification of stars named in the next fifty lines I am indebted to Dr. Maud Makemson, who obtained her information from living Hawaiians or from previously recorded

[8. Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology , pp. 363-65.

9. Makemson, pp. 75-84, 129-32 Malo, pp. 197-98 Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology , pp. 365-69, and see Index.]

sources.[10] Their appearance in the heavens directly after the birth of Wakea has ended the "shutting out of light" agrees with the New Zealand myth, where the covering of the naked expanse of Sky with the heavenly bodies and of Earth with vegetation follows the Pushing upward of the sky to let in the light. The list may further be regarded as a kind of genealogy, since Hawaiians claim that stars are called after chiefs, although the exact connection has never been fully explained. The genealogy of beginning quoted by the Committee of 1904 notes the birth of "men" who "flew to heaven . after all of whom stars are named." So in Tahiti an obscure passage in the story of the "Birth of the Heavenly Bodies" tells how Ta'ura "The red one," a name given to the star Sirius, took a wife of whom "princes" were born, Matari'i (Makali'i) being one then were "created kings of the chiefs of earthly hosts on one side, and of chiefs in the skies on the other side. All were royal personages in Fa'ahiti . from the period of darkness (Po) and they each had a star. They bore the names of those stars, and those names have been perpetuated in their temples in this world.[11]

Following the star lists comes a passage touching upon the adventures of Wakea with a goddess celebrated in Hawaiian story as "Hina-of-the-moon," she who is known in Tahiti as "Hina-who-stepped-into-the-moon," or, in Hawaii again, as Lonomuku, "Maimed-Lono" because, if the myth is correctly interpreted, when she fled to the moon from her earthly companion she left in his hand as he grasped after her one of her legs, from which grew the potato. Directly after, Hina-kawe'o-a is named, but whether the same Hina or another is not made clear. This Hina is certainly identical with "Hina-of-the-fire" who is mother of Maui in the chant of the fifteenth section. A Fornander

genealogy gives Maui's mother the name of Kawea. The name of Hina-of-the-fire, Hina-a-ke-ahi, according to one old Hawaiian, is the fire goddess Pele's sacred name as controlling fire from the earth. In Tahiti Pere is called "goddess of the heat of the earth, a blond woman" ( atua vahine no te vera o te fenua, e vahine 'ehu ). The word we'a or its equivalent we'o is applied in Hawaii to a red coloring matter, but I take the name Kawe'oa to come directly from the Tahitian by elision te-ve (r)a-(a te fenu)a .[12] The whole treatment of the Wakea story here suggests a late handling influenced from Tahiti.[13]

The first Hina comes floating to Wakea in the form of a bailing gourd, a trick familiar in South Sea story but there, so far as I know, always employed by a male shape-shifter to secure passage in a canoe already refused him.[14] Taken into the canoe the bailer becomes a beautiful woman, hence called "Hina-the-bailer." When he takes her home and "sets her by the fire," a euphemism for the sex act, strange sea creatures are born. Next Hina-kawe'o-a "craves food," and Wakea sets up a row of images ( ki'i ), conceals himself in one of them, and from this union is born the same "cock on the back of Wakea" whose birth so radically upsets the established social order at the close of the eleventh section. This Hina is the "Underseas-woman" or "Woman-born-below" (Wahine-lalo-hana[u]) of myth, who nibbles the bait from a chief's fishhooks and is lured to shore by the same trick of the images to whom her brother brings the stars and moon for food, or, in another version, whose family overwhelms the land with a flood to avenge her abduction.

13. Ibid. , p. 407 Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology , pp. 241-44, and chap. xv Fornander, Collection ("Memoirs," No. 5), pp. 266-69 ("Memoirs," No. 6), p. 318 Malo, pp. 307-10.

114. Thrum, More Hawaiian Folk Tales , p. 249 Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology pp. 449-51.]

It is hardly necessary to repeat that both canoe and "image" ( ki'i ) are perfectly understood male sex symbols and are to be so understood in the folk-tale versions here noticed. The word moa , "cock," is used for a high chief, especially in connection with a struggle between competing aspirants, as witness the famous description of a cock fight in the chant describing Kamehameha's victorious campaign on the island of Hawaii.[15] Since it is death for an inferior to allow even his shadow to fall upon the sacred head of a taboo chief, the perch of the cock upon the ridgepole here means that the son claimed higher rank than that of his parent. The story seems to point to a union with some family of high rank, either after the migration to Hawaii or somewhere along the way, whereby an interloping branch gained the position of ruling stock on the family line. The name song of Hina's son Maui, born in the shape of a cock, as told in the chant of the next section, certainly represents such a struggle for position by one born of an alien strain. This "seed of the High One begotten in the heavens" shakes heaven and earth "even to the sacred places."


1795. Papa lived with Wakea
Born was the woman Ha'alolo
Born was jealousy, anger
Papa was deceived by Wakea
He ordered the sun, the moon
1800. The night to Kane for the younger
The night to Hilo for the first-born
Taboo was the house platform, the place for sitting

[15. Fornander, Collection ("Memoirs," No. 6), pp. 382-86 Beckwith, Hawaiian Mythology , pp. 427-29.]

Taboo the house where Wakea lived
Taboo was intercourse with the divine parent
1805. Taboo the taro plant, the acrid one
Taboo the poisonous 'akia plant
Taboo the narcotic auhuhu plant
Taboo the medicinal uhaloa
Taboo the bitter part of the taro leaf
1810. Taboo the taro stalk that stood by the woman's taboo house
Haloa was buried [there], a long taro stalk grew
The offspring of Haloa [born] into the day
Came forth

[The birth of Li'a-i-ku-honua at the "Appearing-of-heaven-and-earth," with whose name the genealogy opens, is mentioned at line 1754 of the preceding branch. The genealogy of that branch is continued through a younger brother, that of the fourteenth through the older. By his wife Ke-aka-huli-honua Li'a has a son Laka. Thirty pairs, husband and wife, precede the birth of Wakea.]

Born was Pau-pani-a[wa]kea
This was Wakea [born was) Lehu'ula [born was] Makulu-kulu-the-chief
Their youngest, a man of great bundles
Collected and placed with Makali'i fixed fast
1850. Fixed are the stars suspended in the sky
[There] swings Ka'awela [Mercury], swings Kupoilaniua
Ha'i swings that way, Ha'i swings this way
Kaha'i swings, swings Kaha'iha'i [in the Milky Way]
Swings Kaua, the star cluster Wahilaninui
1855. Swings the flower of the heavens, Kaulua-i-ha'imoha'i
Puanene swings, the star that reveals a lord
Nu'u swings, Kaha'ilono swings
Wainaku [patron star of Hilo] swings, swings Ikapa'a
Swings Kiki'ula, swings Keho'oea
1860. Pouhanu'u swings, swings Ka-ili-'ula, The-red-skinned
Swings Kapakapaka, [and the morning star) Mananalo [Jupiter or Venus]
Swings Kona, swings Wailea [patron star of Maui]

Swings the Auhaku, swings the Eye-of-Unulau
Swings Hina-of-the-heavens, Hina-lani, swings Keoea
1865. Ka'aka'a swings, swings Polo'ula [star of Oahu]
Kanikania'ula swings, Kauamea swings
Swings Kalalani [of Lanai], swings [the astrologers' star] Kekepue
Swings Ka'alolo [of Ni'ihau], swings the Resting-place-of-the-sun [Kaulana-a-ka-la]
Hua swings, 'Au'a [Betelgeuse] swings
1870. Lena swings, swings Lanikuhana
Swings Ho'oleia, swings Makeaupe'a
Swings Kaniha'alilo, swings 'U'u
Swings Wa [Sirius], swings 'Ololu
Kamaio swings, swings Kaulu[a]lena
1875. Swings Peaked-nose, swings Chicken-nose
Swings Pipa, swings Ho'eu
Swings Malana, swings Kaka'e
Swings Mali'u, swings Kaulua
Lanakamalama swings, Naua swings
1880. Welo swings, swings Ikiiki
Ka'aona swings, swings Hinaia'ele'ele
Puanakau [Rigel] swings, swings Le'ale'a
Swings Hikikauelia [Sirius of navigators], swings Ka'elo
Swings Kapawa, swings Hikikaulonomeha [Sirius of astrologers]
1885. Swings Hoku'ula, swings Poloahilani
Swings Ka'awela, swings Hanakalanai
Uliuli swings, Melemele swings [two lands of old]
Swings the Pleiades, Makali'i, swings the Cluster, na Huihui
Swings Kokoiki [Kamehameha's star], swings Humu [Altair]
1890. Moha'i swings, swings Kaulu[a]okaoka
Kukui swings, swings Konamaukuku
Swings Kamalie, swings Kamalie the first
Swings Kamalie the last
Swings Hina-of-the-yellow-skies, Hina-o-na-leilena
1895. Swing the Seven, na Hiku. [Big Dipper], swings the first of the Seven
The second of the Seven, the third of the Seven
The fourth of the Seven, the fifth of the Seven
The sixth of the Seven, the last of the Seven
Swings Mahapili, swings the Cluster

1900. Swing the Darts [Kao] of Orion
Sown was the seed of Makali'i, seed of the heavens
Sown was the seed of the gods, the sun is a god
Sown was the seed of Hina, an afterbirth of Lono-muku
The food of Hina-ia-ka-malama as Waka
1905. She was found by Wakea in the deep sea
In a sea of coral, a turbulent sea
Hina-ia-ka-malama floated as a bailing gourd
Was hung up in the canoes, hence called Hina-the-bailer [ -ke-ka ]
Taken ashore, set by the fire
1910. Born were corals, born the eels
Born were the small sea urchins, the large sea urchins
The blackstone was born, the volcanic stone was born
Hence she was called Woman-from-whose-womb-come-various-forms, Hinahalakoa
Hina craved food, Wakea went to fetch it
1915. [He] set up images on the platform
Set them up neatly in a row
Wakea as Ki'i [image] slept with Hina-ka-we'o-a
Born was the cock, perched on Wakea's back
The cock scratched the back of Wakea
1920. Wakea was jealous, tried to brush it away
Wakea was jealous, vexed and annoyed
Thrust away the cock and it flew to the ridgepole
The cock was on the ridgepole
The cock was lord
1925. This was the seed of The-high-one
Begotten in the heavens
The heavens shook
The earth shook
Even to the sacred places

What Did Ernest Hemingway Really Drink?

It’s no secret that booze was Ernest Hemingway‘s life-blood, for himself as much for his fictional cohorts. Frederic Henry’s drink of choice in A Farewell to Arms is the martini—”They made me feel civilized,” he says—while in The Sun Also Rises, Jake Barnes likes a Calvados-and-gin concoction called the Jack Rose. In “Three Day Blow,” Nick Adams nurses his heartache with a bottle of “whiskey” (by which Hemingway probably meant Scotch) G&Ts are Thomas Hudson’s go-to in Islands in the Stream and in Green Hills of Africa, Hemingway is seldom without a gimlet, even carting around a bottle of Rose’s lime juice, since fresh limes were elusive on safari.

It’s almost impossible, given all of this, to parse Hemingway’s actual drinking habits from his occasional frat-boy antics. But that’s exactly what Philip Greene has done in his excellent book To Have and Have Another: A Hemingway Cocktail Companion, which was recently re-released with 35 new recipes. As Greene tells it, Hemingway’s acquaintance with booze was quixotic and nearly spiritual. Yes, he occasionally betrayed his alcoholic bona fides by drinking insane, heroic quantities and leaving a trail of smashed highballs and friendships in his wake. But booze was more crucially an existential salve for Hemingway, a much-needed release after a grueling day of defending the Queen’s English.

“At times he clearly drank for effect,” says Greene, a Hemingway expert and co-founder of the Museum of the American Cocktail in New Orleans. “When he committed suicide in 1961, he was relying on drink to dull his pain. But he was also a sophisticated drinker, a local connoisseur who sought out the best bars in Paris and Pamplona. Did drink harm him? Yes. But who’s to say it didn’t also enhance his writing? With Hemingway, it’s like what Churchill said, ‘I’ve taken way more out of alcohol than it’s taken out of me.’ ”

Ernest Hemingway Drank Here: Touring The World’s Greatest Literary Pubs

To Have and Have Another dovetails Hemingway’s drinking life with his literary output, tracing a path from, say, his martini particulars—1 3/4 oz. Gordon’s gin to 1/8 oz. Noilly Prat vermouth—to the great Harry’s Bar martini scenes in Across the River Into the Trees, to Hemingway’s martini benders with Spencer Tracy during the filming of The Old Man and the Sea, to his bizarre martini luncheon with Edward VIII, the former king of England. Importantly, there are over 60 cocktail recipes, many of them works of art (to name just one: a dressed up Tom Collins called the “Maestro Collins,” with which Papa fueled his fishing exertions), as well as glimpses of Papa’s exacting drink standards, such as for the martini: “Just enough vermouth to cover the bottom of the glass… and the Spanish cocktail onions very crisp and also 15 degrees below zero when they go into the glass.”

You may be surprised to learn that Hemingway enjoyed some decidedly un-macho drinks like the White Lady (gin, Cointreau, and lemon juice), plus a host of champagne cocktails. “He adored champagne,” Greene says. Hidden in Hemingway’s papers at the JFK Library in Boston, Greene found a drawing for an unnamed scotch-and-champagne creation that Hemingway relied on as a crutch in the late 1950s, when his health was deteriorating. Tellingly, it was in his medical files, so Greene dubbed it “Physician, Heal Thyself.”

The 50 Greatest Adventure Books

Hemingway’s favorite real-life tipple was a simple scotch and soda, according to Greene. It shows up in his prose more than any other drink, most memorably in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” a sad autobiographical story about an aging writer grappling with his own death while on safari.

But Hemingway also kept a bottle of Campari close at hand on safari, for his beloved negronis. Or were they Americanos? In “a rare mixological mix-up,” Greene writes, Papa confuses the two drinks in Across the River and Into the Trees: “They were drinking negronis, a combination of two sweet vermouths and seltzer water”—a precise description of an Americano. Negronis, unforgettably, include gin. How, Greene asks, could Hemingway have forgotten the gin? Perhaps on this occasion Hemingway violated his cardinal rule to never drink before writing.

Besides the mint julep, bourbon is missing from To Have and Have Another, as it curiously is from Hemingway’s prose.

“He definitely drank it, specifically Old Forester. But he doesn’t write about it,” says Greene. “I’m willing to bet he decided to leave bourbon to Faulkner”—with whom he had a longstanding rivalry.

Although daiquiris make only a single prose appearance in Hemingway’s work — in Islands in the Stream — he liked them enough to suck down 17 in one sitting at the El Floridita. Controversially, the two recipes here—for the Floridita’s famously misspelled “E. Henmiway Special” and the “Papa Doble”—excludes sugar, as Papa hated sweet drinks (“No sugar. No fancying,” are his daiquiri directives). That explains why, despite what some would have you believe, Hemingway wasn’t a mojito fan. In fact, Greene hints that Papa may have never even tasted a mojito.

“There are so many myths out there,” Greene says. “Like that Hemingway invented the Bloody Mary. But it’s just folklore that came out of the Hotel Ritz in Paris, where he went when he was trying to keep his drinking secret from his then wife, Mary Welsh. She became ‘that bloody wife, Mary,’ which turned into the ‘Bloody Mary.’ Like so much else with Hemingway, it’s a nice story, but it doesn’t match up with the reality.”

For access to exclusive gear videos, celebrity interviews, and more, subscribe on YouTube!

Watch the video: Batali spills the beans (October 2021).